Glossary of Common Terms

Definitions of some terms commonly used by the Hollow Metal Industry.

| A  | B  | C  | D  | E  | F  | G  | H  | I  | J  | K  | L  | M  | N  | O  | P  | Q  | R  | S  | T  | U  | V  | W  | X  | Y  | Z 

Click on the term for a picture, where applicable.

A

  • Active Door or Leaf: The first operating door of a pair of doors.
  • Anchor: Device used to fasten materials together.
  • Applied Trim: A separately applied molding used as the face trim of a frame.
  • Approved Submittal Drawings: Detail listing and description of the manufacturer's scope of work which has been reviewed and approved by the party responsible for the project. E.g. design professional, general contractor, or building owner. Approved submittal drawings are required prior to fabrication.
  • Astragal: A member or combination or members applied to one or both doors of a pair at their meeting edges to close the clearance gap for the purpose of either providing a weather seal, minimizing the passage of light or sound between doors or retarding the passage of smoke or flame during a fire.


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B

  • Backbend: See Return
  • Beveled Edge: A vertical door edge which has 1/2" in 2" (3mm in 48mm) slope from a plane perpendicular to the door face.
  • Blast Resistant: Refers to a hollow metal assembly designed & manufactured to resist a specified series of impulse pressures of designated magnitude in pound-force (Newton) and duration in milliseconds.
  • Blocking: Wood reinforcement lining a frame's rough opening.
  • Borrowed Light: A window frame for use in an interior partition.
  • Bullet Resistant: A hollow metal assembly designed and manufactured to resist penetrations by fire arms projectiles.
  • Butt: Abbreviations for Butt Hinge.
  • Butt Hinge: A hinge with rectangular leaves, usually the same size, and multiple bearing contacts.
  • Butt Hinge Door: A door hung on butt hinges.
  • Butt Joint: Intersecting members which are not mitered.


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C

  • Cam-Lift Hinge: A hinge that is designed and manufactured to provide lifting of the door to a specified height as it is opened through a specified degree of swing. On some acoustical doors, it provides a seating of threshold gasketing as the door is closed.
  • Cased Opening: A wall opening which has a frame without a stop.
  • Casement Frame: A frame without a stop.
  • Caulking: A material used to seal joints or seams to resist water, air or sound infiltration.
  • Channel, Top & Bottom: See Top & Bottom Channels
  • Clearance: The width of the space between the bottom of a door and the finished floor or threshold.
  • Closer: See Door Closer.
  • Closer Bracket: A bracket which is connected to a door frame jamb and head at the upper hinge corner to support an exposed overhead door closer; used only on out-swinging doors.
  • Closer Or Strike Bracket: A bracket for mounting an exposed overhead door closer to the under side of a door frame head or transom bar; used for out-swinging doors only.
  • Closer Reinforcement: A metal plate or channel in a door or frame to provide additional strength and screw thread reinforcement for the attachment of a door closer.
  • Cold-Rolled Steel: Cold-rolled steel is made from hot-rolled, descaled coils, which are further processed by annealing & reduction in the cold rolling process to the desired thickness.
  • Communicating Frame: Hollow metal frame fabricated such that a door is installed in each rabbet of a double rabbetted frame (2 doors total) to facilitate dual access and control of the opening, i.e. hotel/motel suites, etc.
  • Compression Anchor: A type of anchor used in slip-on (knocked down) frames to secure the assembled frame into a finished wall opening. The Compression Anchor located at the top of each jamb is used to adjust, square and secure the frame.
  • Coordinator: A mechanism which controls the order of closing of a pair of swing doors; used with doors equipped with overlapping astragals and certain panic and fire exit hardware which requires one door to close ahead of the other.
  • Core: The interior construction of a hollow metal door.
  • Corner Joint Corner: The intersection of two perimeter members of a hollow metal frame.
  • Cover Plate: A finish plate used to cover the exposed face of either a floor closer not covered by the threshold or a closer mounted in the head of a door frame.
  • Cutout: An opening in the hollow metal door or frame to accommodate hardware, glazing, louvers or other options.
  • Cylinder:The term Cylinder can refer to a few items:
    1. The cylindrical mechanism which receives the key used to operate a lock. There are two basic types:
      1. Mortise type, having a threaded surface which screws directly into a lock case, with a cam engaging the lock mechanism.
      2. Rim type, mounted on the surface of the door independently of lock, usually by screws from the reverse side, and engaging with the lock mechanism by means of a tail-piece or metal extension.
    2. The sub-assembly of a lock containing the cylinder core, tumbler mechanism, and the key way. A double cylinder lock is one which has a key actuated cylinder on both the exterior and interior of the door.
  • Cylinder Cam Cylindrical (Bored): A cylindrical lock with the cylinder through the knob or lever. It is installed in a door having one hole through the thickness of the door and another in from the edge.


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D

  • Deadbolt (Of A Lock): A lock bolt having no spring action or bevel; and which is operated by a key or a thumb turn.
  • Deadlatch: A latch having an auxiliary feature which prevents its retraction by end pressure when in the projected position.
  • Deadlock: A lock in which a bolt is moved by means of a key or thumb turn; and which is positively held in its projected position. A lock equipped with a deadbolt only.
  • Deadlock And Latch: A hardware item containing both a deadbolt and a latch bolt.
  • Detention Security: A hollow metal assembly designed and manufactured to assure the containment of individuals to designated areas.
  • Door & Frame Clearance: The width of space between a door and either its frame or the finished floor or threshold; or between the two doors of a pair.
  • Door Closer: A device or mechanism to control the closing of a swing door; may be overhead or floor mounted and either exposed or concealed.
  • Door Frame: An assembly of members surrounding and supporting a door or doors, and perhaps also one or more transom lights and/or sidelights.
  • Door Holder: A hardware device designed to hold a door in the open position.
  • Door Light: The glass area in a glazed door.
  • Door Opening: The opening dimension of a doorway, measured between jamb rabbets and from floor line to head rabbet. The opening size is usually the nominal door size, and is equal to the actual door size plus clearance and threshold height.
  • Door Pull: A handle or grip designed for attachment to a door to facilitate opening and closing.
  • Door Schedule:
    1. The architectural listing of all door openings on the project by architect's mark number including description of each. The schedule is normally found in the contract plans, but also is sometimes found elsewhere in the contract documents.
    2. The portion of the hollow metal manufacturer's submittal drawing that provides a listing of all door openings, borrowed lights, and other hollow metal assemblies including descriptions.
  • Door Size, Actual: For swing doors, the actual width and height of the door leaf itself.
  • Double Egress Frame: A door frame prepared to receive two single-acting doors swinging in opposite directions, both doors being of the same hand.
  • Double Rabbet Frame: A frame having two rabbets.


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E

  • Electric Strike: See Strike.
  • Electro Galvanized: The process by which steel sheets are zinc-coated by electro-deposition in accordance with ASTM A591/A591M "Standard Specification for Steel Sheet, Electrolytic Zinc-Coated, for Light Coating Mass Applications."
  • Elevation: An orthographic projection of the vertical side of a hollow metal assembly (doors, frames, etc.) usually shown on the architectural plans in conjunction with the vertical side view of a building wall.
  • Emergency Release: A safety device other than panic or fire exit hardware which permits egress under emergency conditions.
  • Existing Wall Anchors: An anchor that allows frame installation into an existing wall. This anchor will vary between wall types. Frames being installed into existing masonry walls typically receive expansion or sleeve anchors. Wood and steel stud walls would receive wood screws, with the steel stud being lined with wood during wall construction.
  • Exit Hardware:A door locking or latching mechanism which is designed to be operable in the direction of egress travel. The locking or latching mechanism shall release through pressure on a touch/push bar. If tested and approved, exit hardware can bear a fire rating label certifying its suitability for use on fire-rated emergency doors. Such hardware may be one of the following:
    1. Mortise Type, having the lock mechanism mortised into the edge of the door or concealed within the door.
    2. Rim Type, having the lock mechanism mounted on the interior face of the door, or
    3. Vertical Rod Type, surface or concealed, having the latches in or on the top and/or bottom of the door and activated by the cross bar through a rod linkage extending vertically on or in the lock stile of the door.


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F

  • Face Trim: The exposed part of a door frame which, in general, parallels the wall plane and can overlap the wall; can be either flat, molded, or a combination of the two.
  • Filler Plate: A metal plate used to fill unwanted mortise cutouts in a door or frame.
  • Finish Hardware: Hardware that has a finished appearance as well as a functional purpose and that may be considered a part of the decorative treatment of a room or building. Also termed Architectural.
  • Finished Floor: Top surface of the floor, except that when terrazzo, resilient tile or carpet is used, it is the top surface of the underlying concrete. Typically, we require that the door frame be installed directly on this surface and any material thickness' above be calculated when determining the door leaf undercut.
  • Fire Exit Hardware: A metal device attached to the back of a door frame jamb at its base, to secure the frame to the floor; may be either fixed or adjustable in height.
  • Floor Anchor: See Exit Hardware.
  • Flush Bolt: A rod or bolt, which is mounted flush with the edge or face of the inactive door of a pair, to lock the door to the frame at the head and/or sill. When mounted in the edge, operation is by means of a recessed lever. See Surface Bolt.
  • Flush Door: A door having flush surfaces, with no glass lights, panels, louvers or grilles.
  • Flush-bolt Backset: The distance from the vertical centerline of the leading edge of a door to the centerline of the bolt.
  • Frame: See Door Frame
  • Frame Clearance: Space between door and stop of frame. Normally designed to accommodate rubber silencers.
  • Frame Gasket: Resilient material in strip form attached to door frame stops to provide tight closure of the door.
  • Full Welded Frame: Corner joints are continuously welded at the backbends, faces, rabbets and soffits. The stops are not welded. Mullion joints are face welded only.
  • Fully Welded Seamless Door: A door having all joints on its vertical edge continuously welded and finished flush and smooth.


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G

  • Galvanized: Steel that is zinc-coated by the hot-dip process, resulting in a full spangled finish. ASTM A653/A653M
  • Galvannealed: Steel that is zinc-iron alloy-coated by the hot-dip process followed by heating the steel to induce diffusion alloying between the molten zinc coating and the steel. The resulting finish is a dull matte surface. ASTM A653/A653M
  • Glass Light: Also referred to a Vision Light. In a frame, the glass light is formed by the assembly of jamb, head, sill and mullion members into a rectangular or shaped opening. The glass light is equipped with factory installed glass stop used to retain the glass that is installed by the glazing contractor. In a door, the glass light is formed by providing a rectangular or shaped cutout in the door and equipping it with glass molding and removable stop to receive the glass.
  • Glass Stop: A formed metal section used to secure glazing in a door or frame.
  • Glazing: A form of mortar used to fill up interstices in masonry. The process is often carried out by injecting the mixture under pressure.


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H

  • Hand (Of Door): A term used to designate the direction of a door swing. Also referred to as the Swing (Of Door).
  • Hardware Schedule: Complete listing of all hardware specified for the project organized by opening numbers including hardware sets, manufacturers names, template numbers, and special hardware locations.
  • Hardware Set: The itemized listing of hardware that is specified to be installed on an opening or group of openings. The hardware set also includes handing, fire ratings and opening numbers.
  • Hardware Side Or Hinge Side: The face of a door which is opposite to that which contacts the frame stops.
  • Head Or Header: The horizontal member which forms the top of a frame.
  • Hinge: A hardware device generally consisting of two metal plates having loops formed along one edge of each to engage and rotate about a common pivot rod or "pin"; used to suspend and support a swing door in its frame.
  • Hinge Backset: On a door, the distance from the stop face, or narrow side to the edge of the hinge cutout. On a frame, the distance from the stop to the edge of the hinge cutout. Casement frame backsets are typically achieved by using a theoretical stop distance (Standard Hollow Metal: 1-15/16"). This dimension will vary across product lines.
  • Hinge Edge Or Hinge Stile: The vertical edge or stile of a door to which hinges or pivots are attached.
  • Hollow Metal: A term used in reference to such items as doors, frames, partitions, enclosures and other items, which are fabricated from cold formed metal sheet, usually carbon steel. These products are usually internally reinforced but hollow, hence the term "hollow metal." In doors and partitions, the voids are normally filled with insulation. In frames the jambs and heads are either grouted or left hollow.
  • Hospital Stop: Door stops on both jambs of a door frame that are cut off and closed at 45° or 90° angle, several inches above the finished floor. Also referred to as Sanitary Base or Terminated Stop.


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I

  • Inactive Door Or Leaf: The leaf of a pair of doors, which does not contain a lock but is secured, when closed, by top and bottom bolts, and contains a strike to receive the latch or bolt of the active leaf.
  • Interlocking Tab: Tab and slot combination used to align the joint in machined mitered frame corner joints.


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J

  • Jamb:The vertical member forming the side of a frame:
    1. Blank Jamb:A jamb which has not been prepared to receive hardware.
    2. Hinge Jamb:The jamb at which hinges or pivots are installed.
    3. Strike Jamb:The jamb at the leading edge of a door, in which a strike may be installed.
  • Jamb Anchor:A metal device secured to the back of a frame jamb to anchor the frame to the wall.
    1. Masonry Anchor: An anchor used in a masonry wall.
    2. Stud Anchor: An anchor used in a wall built with steel studs or wood studs
    3. Expansion Bolt Anchor: An anchor used in existing walls.
  • Jamb Depth: The dimension of the jamb measured perpendicular to the door or wall face at the edge of the opening.
  • Jamb Extension: That section of a jamb which extends below the level of the finish floor for attachment to the rough floor.
  • Jamb Opening Size: The size of a frame opening, measured horizontally between jamb rabbets and vertically between the head rabbet and the finished floor. The jamb opening size is usually the nominal door size, and is equal to the actual door size plus clearances and threshold height.


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K

  • Keeper: See Strike.
  • Keyed-Alike Cylinders: Cylinders which are designed to be operated by the same key. (Not to be confused with Master Keying cylinders.)
  • Keyed-Different Cylinders: Cylinders requiring specific individually designed keys for their operation.
  • Kickplate: A plate applied to the face of the lower rail of a door or sidelight to protect against abrasion or impact loads.
  • Knob: An ornamental functional round handle on a door, generally used to actuate a latch or lock.
  • Knock Down: A term used in reference to any product that is shipped disassembled, for assembly at the building site; commonly abbreviated "KD."


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L

  • Labeled Door Or Frame: A door or frame that conforms to all applicable requirements, in respect to fire resistance, of a nationally recognized authority and bears a label designating the fire resistance rating.
  • Latch: A hardware mechanism having a spring-activated beveled-end bolt, retractable by a knob or lever handle, but no locking device; used to hold a door in its closed position. See also Deadlatch. A beveled end latch bolt, usually operated by a knob, handle or turn piece.
  • Latch Bolt: A metal bar which, when actuated is projected (thrown) either horizontally or vertically into a retaining member, such as a strike plate, to prevent a door from moving or opening.
  • Leading Edge: That vertical edge of a swing door which is opposite the hinge edge; same as Lock Edge.
  • Lead-Lined Door Or Frame: A door or frame which is lined with sheet lead to prevent radiation penetration.
  • Leaf: An individual door, used either singly or in multiples.
  • Lever Handle: A bar-like grip which is rotated about a horizontal axis at one of its ends to operate a latch.
  • Lock: A hardware mechanism having a retractable bolt operated by a key, thumb turn or other means, and designed to hold a door securely closed against unauthorized opening.
  • Lock Backset: The distance from the vertical centerline of the leading edge of a door to the centerline of the lock cylinder, measured horizontally and parallel to the door face.
  • Lock Clip: A flexible metal part attached to the inside of a door face to position a mortise lock.
  • Lock Edge Or Lock Stile: The vertical edge or stile of a door in which a lock or latch may be installed. Also referred to as the Leading Edge.
  • Lock Faceplate: The exposed plate which sets in the edge of a door to cover a lock mechanism; also referred to as a "lock front."
  • Lock Reinforcement: A reinforcing plate attached inside of the lock edge or lock stile of a door to receive a lock.
  • Loose Stop, Removable Stop: Stop which is removable to allow installation of glass, fixed panel, or door.
  • Louver: An opening in the door with a series of slats, blades, or piercings to allow passage of air. It may be either an inserted assembly or welded internally.


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M

  • Master Keying: A system of keying cylinders so that one master key will operate all of them; secondary keys will operate only certain groups of them; and other keys will operate only certain individual cylinders. An infinite number of combinations is available; and the keying system must be set up by the cylinder manufacturer.
  • Meeting Stile: The vertical edge of a door, in a pair of doors, which is adjacent to the other door.
  • Miter Joint: The corner joint of a head and jamb in which the trim faces meet at an angle.
  • Mortar Guard: See Dust Cover box
  • Mortise Lock: A lock designed to be installed in a mortise preparation rather than applied to the door's surface.
  • Mortise Preparation: A cutout which may include reinforcing, drilling and tapping for hardware which is to be mortised into a door or frame.
  • Mullion: A member within a frame, separating either doors, a door and sidelights, glazed areas, or panels. A mullion between two doors of a pair may be either fixed or removable.


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N

  • Narrow Side: See Stop Side.


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P

  • Panic Hardware: Hardware similar to Exit Hardware, but which has been tested and labeled for use only on emergency exit doors which are not fire doors. (See Exit Hardware)
  • Plaster Guard: See Dust Cover Box.
  • Pressure Resistant: Refers to a hollow metal assembly designed and manufactured to resist uniform static pressure of a specified magnitude and duration over its exposed surface.
  • Primer/Prime Paint: Paint coating used as a base for finish paint.


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R

  • Rabbet: Area of the frame between the stop and the face.
  • Radiation Shielding: Refers to a hollow metal assembly designed and manufactured to resist penetration by a specified type of radiation.
  • Rail: The horizontal structural member forming the top or bottom edge of a door or sash; or located at an intermediate height in a door, separating panels or glazed areas.
  • Removable Mullion: A mullion separating door openings within a door frame, required for normal operation of doors but designed to permit its temporary removal on occasions.
  • Reverse Bevel: A term used to designate the hand of a door when the key is on the exterior and the door swings to the exterior. See Hand (of door).
  • Roller Latch: A hardware device for holding a swing door in closed position. It consists of a spring-loaded roller mortised into the door edge so as to engage with a groove strike mortised into the frame jamb.
  • Roller Strike: See Strike.
  • Rough Opening: The wall opening into which a frame is to be installed.


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S

  • Security Door: Hollow metal assembly designed and manufactured to resist intrusion or forced entry in commercial applications.
  • Shop Drawings: See Approved Submittal Drawings
  • Side Light: A fixed light of glass located alongside a door or doors within the same frame.
  • Sill: The bottom horizontal member or surface of a door opening. (The term is incorrectly used to refer to a threshold.)
  • Sill Anchor: Part used to fasten sill section to floor.
  • Single Rabbet Frame: A frame having only one rabbet.
  • Single Swing Frame: A frame prepared to receive one swing door.
  • Single-Acting Door: A door mounted to swing on only one side of the plane of its frame.
  • Soffit: That portion of a door frame between the stops on a double rabbetted frame or between the stop and the inner edge of the trim on the stop side of a single rabbetted frame.
  • Sound Retardant: A hollow metal assembly designed and manufactured to resist sound transmission through the assembly. The Sound Transmission Classification (STC) rating of the assembly indicates the level of resistance to sound transmission.
  • Splice: A connection of hollow metal frame components accomplished in the field.
  • Split Frame : A frame in which the jamb width is made up of two pieces. Also referred as Clamp-on Frame.
  • Spot Weld: Resistance type weld. A weld nugget is produced by passing high amperage current through steel sheets using contact electrodes.
  • Spreader: A stiffening member temporarily attached to the base of a door frame, extending between jambs, to keep the frame in proper alignment during shipping and handling.
  • Spreader Bar: Stiffening member placed at base of frame to keep frame in alignment before installation. It is recommended that this bar not be used for installation but that a wood spreader be used for maintaining proper spacing between jambs.
  • Stainless Steel: An alloy of iron containing at least 11 % chromium which provides corrosion resistance.
  • Steel Stud Anchor: See Jamb Anchor.
  • Stiffener: Internal steel reinforcing used to strengthen door panels.
  • Stile: The vertical structural member, exclusive of glazing bead or panel mold, which forms the edge of a door.
  • Stop: That part of a door frame or window frame against which the door or window closes. See also Glass Stop.
  • Stop Side: That face of door which contacts the frame stops.
  • Strike:An opening or retaining device provided in the head or jamb of a frame, or in the edge of the meeting stile of an inactive door to receive a lock or latch. (Also referred to as a Keeper or Strike Plate.)
    1. Box Strike: A strike consisting of a face plate with rectangular opening and a box-like enclosure attached to the back of the plate and surrounding the opening.
    2. Dustproof Strike: A strike which is placed in the threshold or sill of an opening, or in the floor, to receive a flush bolt, and is equipped with a spring loaded follower to cover the recess and keep out dirt.
    3. Electric Strike: A strike used with a latch lock and designed to be actuated by a remotely controlled electromagnet to permit the door to be opened without retracting the latch.
    4. Roller Strike: A strike for latch bolts, having a roller mounted on the lip to reduce friction.
    5. Open Back Strike: A strike which enables a pair of doors to close simultaneously or one ahead of the other without the assistance of a coordinator.
  • Strike Backset: On a door frame, the distance from the stop to the edge of the strike cutout. Casement frame backsets are typically achieved by using a theoretical stop distance (Standard Hollow Metal: 1-15/16"). This dimension will vary across product lines.
  • Strike Jamb: See Jamb.
  • Strike Plate: See Strike.
  • Strike Reinforcement: A metal plate attached to a door or frame to receive a strike.
  • Surface Bolt: A rod or bolt mounted on the face of the inactive door of a pair to lock it to the frame head and/or sill; operated manually by means of a small knob.
  • Surface Hardware Preparation: Reinforcement of door or frame to receive surface-mounted hardware to be applied in the field.
  • Swing: The direction of opening of a swing door; synonymous with Hand (of door). A door mounted on hinges or pivots.


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T

  • Template (For Hardware): A precise detailed layout or pattern for providing the necessary preparation of a door or frame to receive hardware.
  • Templated Hardware: Hardware manufactured in accordance with a specific template.
  • Thermal Bow: A temporary condition which may occur in exterior doors due to the inside-outside temperature differential. The extent of this condition may vary with door color, door construction, length of exposure, etc. This condition can often be alleviated by painting the outside surface of the door a light color.
  • Throw: The distance which a lock bolt or latch bolt projects when in the locked position.
  • Tolerance: Permissible deviation from a nominal or specified dimension or value.
  • Top And Bottom Channels: Horizontal stiffener channels welded into the top and bottom edges of a door.
  • Transom: A framed area immediately above a door opening and containing fixed glass, an operating sash, panel, or other filler. Sometimes seperated from the door with a horizontal framing member.
  • Transom Bar Or Mullion: The horizontal frame member which separates the door opening from the transom in a transom frame.
  • Transom Frame: A frame containing a door opening and transom.
  • Trim: See Face Trim.


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U

  • Undercut: Clearance between finished floor and bottom of door.


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V

  • Vision Light: An opening in a door with or without transparent glazing.


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W

  • Weephole: A small opening provided to permit the drainage of moisture.
  • Weld, Continuous: A weld which is unbroken, having no unwelded gaps or spaces, over its entire length.
  • Welded Frame: Door frame assembled by spot and/or arc welding.
  • Welded, Continuously:Welded over a continuos length.
    1. Frame: Corner joints of a continuously welded frame are welded over the entire length of the interfaces between the frame members. Mullion joints are face welded only.
    2. Door: A vertical door edge seam which is welded over its entire length, except at hardware cutouts.
  • Wide Side: See Hinge Side.
  • Wood Stud Anchor: See Jamb Anchor.
  • Wrap-Around Frame: A frame which fits over the wall. The wall thickness is nominal 1/8" (3mm) less than the frame throat.


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Most terms are as defined by the National Association of Architectural Metal Manufacturers.